How to fix internet connectivity errors in Android Studio emulator

This was a strange problem for me. I am not a Java or Android developer but had to create a small Android app to test something. I noticed that no internet connection was available to the emulated device.

After to Googling and wondering I realized that the solution was to:

Disable my ethernet card from my laptop, then restart my emulator. This I had to do because for some reason the emulator or Android studio doesn’t recognize a WiFi card as the primary connection if you have both the ethernet card and the WiFi card enabled. Might be a configuration in Android Studio for make this work but I had to do it from Windows Control Panel: Control Panel\Network and Internet\Network Connections

Xamarin Development – Notes, tips and info – Part 1: How to develop your first iOS and Android Apps


This is series of posts and my notes and info which are based on a Udemy course. I’ve taken what I consider “good to know” and wrote them down. This may come handy to someone else.

These are my notes on Xamarin Development.

Presently this post is mostly based on this Udemy Course:


What is Xamarin. 2

Xamarin Platform.. 2

Xamarin Test Cloud. 2

Xamarin Insight. 2

Debugging Android applications. 3

Xamarin Platform.. 4

C# as the language for your mobile app development. 4

Share your C# code on any platform.. 4

Device provisioning/installation of your app. 4

First iOS Application. 4

Basic iOS controls: 5

Properties window.. 5

Naming UI Controls. 5

Events. 6

UI Elements. 6

Different Keyboard types. 6

Changing background colors. 7

Tips and Tricks. 7

First Android Application. 7

Basic Androi controls. 7

Naming UI Controls. 7

Accessing UI elements in the code. 8

UI Elements. 9

Different Keyboard types. 9

Navigation between pages in iOS and Android. 9

Navigation between pages in Android. 9

Adding a new layout and activity. 10

Using Intents to navigate. 10

Passing values between activities (pages/layouts). 10

Navigation between pages in iOS. 11

Adding a new navigation controller. 11

Passing values between views/segues (pages/layouts). 15

What is Xamarin

Xamarin Platform

Building applications on mobile devices

Xamarin apps share code across all platforms

Target i0S, Android, Windows and Mac with a single, shared C# codebase. Use the same language, APIs and data structures on every platform.

C# is the best language for mobile app development

Anything you can do on Objective-C, Swift or Java, you can do in C#

Native UI, native API access, native performance

Xamarin apps are built with standard, native user interface controls. Apps not only look the way the end user expects, they behave that way too. This can’t be achieved with other solutions. They look and behave as they would on that native environment (Android. iOS, Windows Phone)

Xamarin Test Cloud

Test your applications on different devices

Test your app on over 1,000 devices

Run your app on a huge collection of real devices from around the world. Select devices based on form factor, manufacturer, operating system, or even popularity in your target market.

Automate using Ruby or C#

With a framework called Calabash you can automate and test any iOS or Android app, native or hybrid, from the UI level down for perfect integration and continuous improvements.

Analyze app performance

See full-frame screenshots and video playback for every step of every test, then receive performance data and compare reports against previous runs to find regressions and bottlenecks.

Xamarin Insight

Monitoring your applications

Precise, detailed error reporting

Xamarin Insights helps developers prioritize issues by showing exactly which users each crash is impacting, and what sequence of actions preceded the crash.

Understand how users are interacting with your app

Developers can see who’s online, which devices they’re using, what issues they’ve experienced, where they’re from, and which activities they’ve used in sessions.

Integrate your data

Connect your app to a variety of external services and be notified when a new issue is opened, an issue is occurring repeated times in a small amount of time, or an issue’s status changes.

· Github

· Visual Studio Online

· …

Debugging Android applications

· You can use normal Android Virtual Devices with the SDK

· for a FASTER experience use the Xamarin Android Player:

o You also avoid using Hyper-V on Windows

Image: 1 Xamarin Android Player

o To Use the Android Player just go to your Visual Studio toolbar and select a device in this case the device installed in Image: 1 Xamarin Android Player

Image: 2 Example how to use the Android Player

Xamarin Platform

C# as the language for your mobile app development

· Anything you can do in Objective-C, Swift, Java, you can do in C#

· Things which are better than competition(at the present)

o Stronger Types

§ Generics and Compound types are used safely

· No need for casting of comments

· Good tools that understand what you are doing

o Language-level async, made easy in C#

o First-class functions, lambdas are easy to use

Share your C# code on any platform

· Possible to share on average about 75 % of your code across platforms

o Most of it at app logic, common functionality

o Could also be at UI level

§ Xamarin.Forms could be used in theory to achieve 100 % shareable code

Device provisioning/installation of your app

· iOS – Two options:

o Enroll to the Apple Developer Program:


o Or with Xcode 7 use free provisioning:


First iOS Application

· Start with a single view app

· Main.Storyboard we define the UI

· ViewController.cs the main logic goes here

· iOS UI design on implementation requires more work to make it work and look good across different iOS devices

· By default the main.storyboard is linked to the ViewController.cs.

Basic iOS controls:

· Label

· TextField (for inputing data)

· Button

Properties window

· Widget tab

o You can alter button properties such as:

§ Color and how it looks

§ Title

§ Font

§ ID

§ etc

· Layout tab

o How the control is laid out on the UI

· Events tab

o How the user interacts with the control through touch

Naming UI Controls

· This can be achieved through the properties window.

o Select the desired UI control from the main.storyboard

o Go to the Name text field under the Identity category

o Notice: This is a physical name, meaning that you use this in the code to access the control


· When users click/touch on buttons an event is launched.

· You can attach to a click event through the UI or through code by normal C# event handling in the ViewDidLoad() function in the ViewController.cs file

public override void ViewDidLoad()



// Perform any additional setup after loading the view, typically from a nib.

this.convertButton.TouchUpInside += ConvertButton_TouchUpInside;


UI Elements

Different Keyboard types

· You can select different types of keyboard by selecting a text field and under Keyboard Type select the desired keyboard output

Changing background colors

To change the background color of a control simply change the BackgroundColor property. Example>

this.colorView.BackgroundColor = UIColor.FromRGB(redValue, greenValue, blueValue);

Tips and Tricks

Using this.View.EndEditing(true); will end/hide the editing keyboard.

First Android Application

· For Visual Studio development you need Hyper-V to emulate an android device

Basic Androi controls

· Under Text fields category you will find normal input controls

· Under form widgets you will find basic button and plain text controls

Naming UI Controls

· This is found in the properties window under the Main category and in there ID

Accessing UI elements in the code

· In an Android application you have to find the controls manually and assign them to a variable of the same type.

· You use the FindViewById<>() function call. You pass the class type to the template(generic) parameter, then pass the control ID by accessing your project namespace then Resources class, then Id class and finally the control ID which you define in your layout.


using Android.Runtime;

using Android.Views;

using Android.Widget;

using Android.OS;

namespace BMICalculationAndroid


MainLauncher =
Icon =

public class MainActivity : Activity


Button calculateBMI;

TextView resultTextView;

EditText heightEditText, weightEditText;

protected override void OnCreate(Bundle bundle)



// Set our view from the “main” layout resource


this.calculateBMI = FindViewById<Button>(BMICalculationAndroid.Resource.Id.calculateBMI);

this.resultTextView = FindViewById<TextView>(BMICalculationAndroid.Resource.Id.resultTextView);

this.heightEditText = FindViewById<EditText>(BMICalculationAndroid.Resource.Id.heightEditText);

this.weightEditText = FindViewById<EditText>(BMICalculationAndroid.Resource.Id.weightEditText);




UI Elements

Different Keyboard types

· To change to keyboard type when typing on a mobile device you do it similarly as on the iOS side

o In the properties window go to Main – Input Format => inputType and change the keyboard type

Navigation between pages in iOS and Android

Navigation between pages in Android

Adding a new layout and activity

· This allows you to create another UI view/page that is to be displayed in your application

To do this in Visual Studio go to the Resources/Layout folder and add a new item. From the Add New Item window select the Android Layout option.

Then create new activity code class which will operate on the newly created layout.

You can create this for example in your project root by adding again a new item there.

Then to create the link and set the content between the layout and the activity call the SetContentView() function.

protected override void OnCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)



// Create your application here



Using Intents to navigate

· You navigate to another layout(page) by using the Intent class

· You can use the constructor that takes the present content and the desired activity class associated with the layout

· Then you start the activity and move to the other layout(page) by calling the StartActivity() function

var intent = new Intent(this, typeof(BMIDetailsActivity));


Passing values between activities (pages/layouts)

· In the activity from where you want a value to be passed to another activity you use the Intent class member function named PutExtra() to store the value. It is a key value pair which can be retrieved in another activity later:

var intent = new Intent(this, typeof(BMIDetailsActivity));



· And to restore the value you access it through the activity Intent class member by accessing from it the Extras member. From there use the GetFloat() function.

var bmi = Intent.Extras.GetFloat(“bmi_value”);

Navigation between pages in iOS

Adding a new navigation controller

· Drag and drop a new navigation controller

· If you already have a root view controller, then remove the one which was created by the previous operation (Press the mouse second button on the view controller and press delete)

· Next move is to indicate to the application what is the starting view (Apple story board naming is: sourceless seque). You are using a sourceless seque indicator:

o Drag and drop it on the navigation controller

Image: 3 it should look something like this

· Next create a relationship between the navigation controller and the main view by pressing CTRL + left mouse button on the navigation controller and dragging the mouse over the main view. Then you select the Root option from the new popup. This will mark the main view as the root view.

· Next drag a new view on the storyboard and give it a name. Once you do this the developer tool will warn you that there is no code behind class associated with the view(In Xamarin Studio the UI will offers you to create one). In Visual Studio the easiest way to do it is to press the dark grey area on the view without a controller and writing a new class name in the Class property in the properties window. This will create a new view controller associated to the view selected.

· To navigate from your Main(root) view just select a control that can be pressed like a button, press CTRL + left mouse button on it, then drag to the desired view and let go of the mouse button. In the new popup select Show. This is it. A connection and transition has been made between the views.

Passing values between views/segues (pages/layouts)

· To pass a value between views/segues you can override the function PrepareForSegue() which is launched when the segue is about to be used, that is when the user presses a button or some other UI element which invokes the action of moving from one view/page/layout to another one. What was done earlier.

· In the function you then access the parameter segue and ask for the DestinationViewController class member which you have to cast to the target view controller class. After that it is simply of matter of accessing the defined properties in the view controller class. Same as accessing any public member of a class.

public override void PrepareForSegue(UIStoryboardSegue segue, NSObject sender)


base.PrepareForSegue(segue, sender);

var detailViewController = segue.DestinationViewController asBMIDetailsViewController2;

if(detailViewController != null)


detailViewController.bmi = this.bmi;



Mobile Device Testing and Debugging with VirtualBox, Android Studio, Visual Studio and IIS

This post is from the perspective of a person who has a Microsoft technologies based web solution that needs to connect with a mobile device. This might work for other types of technologies and virtual machines with some or alot of tuning. Basic principles should be more or less the same.

I will give firstly an introduction on the solution used in my scenario:

I have a Android mobile device with an app in it that needs to connect to a webapi service to retrieve data and post data to it. The thing which this post is concerned about, is debugging the app with Android studio using the app from the Android device against a webapi which is also under debug mode in Visual Studio. This way I can see what is happening both on the client and on the server side.

Basically how this works is that you will have to connect with your mobile device to a local network where your physical machine exists. Because you are using a mobile device the logical way is over WiFi and no having your device plugged in to your physical machine by USB does not work. You can not directly connect to a localhost that way. Well atleast I could not make it to work. Notice that you can connect to a localhost from Android Studio while debugging your Android app but this is only possible is your a emulating the app locally. Even then though you might have problems and have to configure your solution in such a way that your app will pick it up.

This post assumes that you have a ready build for your server side solution at a location in your development machine. Here are the steps:

1. Create IIS site

– Add a new application to IIS which points to your solution build location.


– Next make sure that the application pool account has enough privileges to the location. I do this by creating a new account to AD or I create a local machine account on my development machine.

This is to configure the Application Pool account:

These steps are for the file system level:


– If you are using a database in your application make sure that the application pool account has the proper privileges. This depends of course on how you have built your solution.
– Assign a port to your web application



2. Config ports and firewall settings
– Next you need to allow inbound and outbound connections to you web application through the port which was earlier configured for the web application. This needs to be done for both the virtual machine and your actual physical machine.

For virtualBox:

For WMWare:

3. Attach to process

The next steps is to attach your developer tools to your server solution and your mobile application to whatever developer tools your are using, something like Android Studio or XCode.

Config VirtualBox


VirtualBox, Android Devices and error “This device cannot start. (Code 10)”

Ok, if you get this error you are probably trying to install your Android device to windows and it fails. When checking the device manager you might see the following error code. There are numerous posts and instructions which might help you but none did to my LG G3. What eventually helped was an insight based on several different posts.

On my virtual machine the problem was related to the USB port type used in relation to the USB port actually used in your real world machine and USB cable used.

Basically as default the VirtualBox used USB 1.1 which for some reason does not work, probably something to do with my cable being USB 2.0. To fix my problem I installed the VirtualBox extension for USB: VM VirtualBox Extension Pack.

Then I changed the USB type to be used for the Virtual Machine to 2.0, booted my windows and it worked. So if you are getting the error above no matter where you are check that you have the proper USB cable which is compatible with your Android device and the port on your machine. For a virtual machine image check that you have the right USB configuration in relation to your real world devices.

If the case above does not work, then try this KB article from Microsoft:

How to use: Azure Service Bus – Notification hub, Azure hosted SignalR Hub with .NET clients, Android clients and web JavaScript clients

Huh that is a looong title for a blog post :). It is easier for me to write these all in one post since they are related the code in this case. So here I go, bear with me, it’s going to be alot of stuff and code.

The codes and examples here are from the own personal technology workbench project hosted in Azure. More code and examples how these features and functionality work can be found here.

I will go in the following order with the topics covered in this post:

  • Notification Hub
    • Setting up the Azure Service Bus – Notification Hub
    • Connecting with a .NET Client and sending messages
    • Connecting and listening to messages with an Android device client
  • SignalR Hub
    • Setting up a Azure hosted SignalR hub
    • Connecting and listening to activities with the following clients:
      • Connecting with the .NET Client
      • Connecting with the JavaScript client
      • Connecting with the Android client

Notification Hub

Some links to get you started:

Setting up the Azure Service Bus – Notification Hub

I wont go into much details here. Microsoft has done a great job documenting these steps, I recommend you go to the following link and follow the first part of these instructions:

What you will need for my code example is a Google Developer account and a API Key from google to be able to send and receive GCM messages to Android devices. Of course you will also need a Azure account to be able to create the notification hub.

Add the following Nugget package:

Microsoft Azure Service Bus

Connecting with a .NET Client and sending messages

The code below will connect from a .NET Client to the Notification Hub. This is done in the class constructor. At the moment this code can only send GCM messages to Android devices. Note that these operations are asynchronous.

But you could use a "central" hub from where to send these messages which will handle sending messages to different devices through a WebAPI:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.ServiceBus.Notifications;

namespace MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.ServiceBus
    // TODO: Replace this with a connection to the notification central hub, do not sent message directly from here in the future!!!!
    public class NotificationGateway
        private NotificationHubClient hub = null;
        private static NotificationGateway _notificationGateway;
        public NotificationGateway()

            hub = NotificationHubClient.CreateClientFromConnectionString(MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.Globals.MyFitAppSettings.NotificationHubConnectionString, MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.Globals.MyFitAppSettings.NotificationHubName);




        public async Task<NotificationOutcome> SendMessage(string message)
            var toast = "{ \"data\" : {\"message\":\"" + "From : " + message + "\"}}";
            return await hub.SendGcmNativeNotificationAsync(toast);

        public static NotificationGateway GetInstance()
            if(_notificationGateway == null)
                _notificationGateway = new NotificationGateway();

            return _notificationGateway;

Connecting and listening to messages with an Android device client

The Android side is a bit more complicated and annoying. You have to do more work here.

At the first you need two Microsoft java libraries to be able to connect to a notification hub:

After this you need to add them to your Android Studio gradle file:

dependencies {
 compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
 compile ''
 compile ''
 compile ''
 compile files('libs/signalr-client-sdk.jar')
compile files('libs/notifications-1.0.1.jar')
compile files('libs/notification-hubs-0.4.jar')
 compile files('libs/Java-WebSocket-1.3.0.jar')
 compile project(':signalr-client-sdk-android-release')

 Please remember to follow these instructions to setup your Android Studio project in a correct manner, more details here:

The most important piece of code is the class named MyHandler in this case which will handle your notifications once your device is registered to the notification hub:

package com.example.adriansimionescu.myfitnessandroidapp;

import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;

public class MyHandler extends NotificationsHandler {
    public static final int NOTIFICATION_ID = 1;
    private NotificationManager mNotificationManager;
    NotificationCompat.Builder builder;
    Context ctx;

    static public MainActivity mainActivity;

    public void onReceive(Context context, Bundle bundle) {
        ctx = context;
        String nhMessage = bundle.getString("message");

        mainActivity.DialogNotify("Received Notification",nhMessage);

    private void sendNotification(String msg) {
        mNotificationManager = (NotificationManager)

        PendingIntent contentIntent = PendingIntent.getActivity(ctx, 0,
                new Intent(ctx, MainActivity.class), 0);

        NotificationCompat.Builder mBuilder =
                new NotificationCompat.Builder(ctx)
                        .setContentTitle("Notification Hub Demo")
                        .setStyle(new NotificationCompat.BigTextStyle()


You also need a class that will register you device to the notification hub:


package com.example.adriansimionescu.myfitnessandroidapp;

import java.util.Set;

import org.apache.http.HttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.HttpStatus;
import org.apache.http.client.ClientProtocolException;
import org.apache.http.client.HttpClient;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPut;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpUriRequest;
import org.apache.http.entity.StringEntity;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.DefaultHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;
import org.json.JSONArray;
import org.json.JSONException;
import org.json.JSONObject;

import android.content.Context;
import android.content.SharedPreferences;
import android.util.Log;

public class RegisterClient {
    private static final String PREFS_NAME = "ANHSettings";
    private static final String REGID_SETTING_NAME = "ANHRegistrationId";
    private String Backend_Endpoint;
    SharedPreferences settings;
    protected HttpClient httpClient;
    private String authorizationHeader;

    public RegisterClient(Context context, String backendEnpoint) {
        this.settings = context.getSharedPreferences(PREFS_NAME, 0);
        httpClient =  new DefaultHttpClient();
        Backend_Endpoint = backendEnpoint + "/api/register";

    public String getAuthorizationHeader() {
        return authorizationHeader;

    public void setAuthorizationHeader(String authorizationHeader) {
        this.authorizationHeader = authorizationHeader;

    public void register(String handle, Set<String> tags) throws ClientProtocolException, IOException, JSONException {
        String registrationId = retrieveRegistrationIdOrRequestNewOne(handle);

        JSONObject deviceInfo = new JSONObject();
        deviceInfo.put("Platform", "gcm");
        deviceInfo.put("Handle", handle);
        deviceInfo.put("Tags", new JSONArray(tags));

        int statusCode = upsertRegistration(registrationId, deviceInfo);

        if (statusCode == HttpStatus.SC_OK) {
        } else if (statusCode == HttpStatus.SC_GONE){
            registrationId = retrieveRegistrationIdOrRequestNewOne(handle);
            statusCode = upsertRegistration(registrationId, deviceInfo);
            if (statusCode != HttpStatus.SC_OK) {
                Log.e("RegisterClient", "Error upserting registration: " + statusCode);
                throw new RuntimeException("Error upserting registration");
        } else {
            Log.e("RegisterClient", "Error upserting registration: " + statusCode);
            throw new RuntimeException("Error upserting registration");

    private int upsertRegistration(String registrationId, JSONObject deviceInfo)
            throws UnsupportedEncodingException, IOException,
            ClientProtocolException {
        HttpPut request = new HttpPut(Backend_Endpoint+"/"+registrationId);
        request.setEntity(new StringEntity(deviceInfo.toString()));
        request.addHeader("Authorization", "Basic "+authorizationHeader);
        request.addHeader("Content-Type", "application/json");
        HttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(request);
        int statusCode = response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode();
        return statusCode;

    private String retrieveRegistrationIdOrRequestNewOne(String handle) throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
        if (settings.contains(REGID_SETTING_NAME))
            return settings.getString(REGID_SETTING_NAME, null);

        HttpUriRequest request = new HttpPost(Backend_Endpoint+"?handle="+handle);
        request.addHeader("Authorization", "Basic "+authorizationHeader);
        HttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(request);
        if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() != HttpStatus.SC_OK) {
            Log.e("RegisterClient", "Error creating registrationId: " + response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode());
            throw new RuntimeException("Error creating Notification Hubs registrationId");
        String registrationId = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity());
        registrationId = registrationId.substring(1, registrationId.length()-1);

        settings.edit().putString(REGID_SETTING_NAME, registrationId).commit();

        return registrationId;

After all these steps and setups you can finally go to your activity and add the following pieces of codes to fire up the connection and start listening to messages:


// Define this properties in you activity class</pre>
<pre>private RegisterClient registerClient;
private String SENDER_ID = "";
private GoogleCloudMessaging gcm;
private NotificationHub hub;
private String HubName = "fittracker";
private String HubListenConnectionString = "";</pre>
private void registerWithNotificationHubs() {
 new AsyncTask() {
 protected Object doInBackground(Object... params) {
 try {
 String regid = gcm.register(SENDER_ID);
 DialogNotify("Registered Successfully", "RegId : " +
 } catch (Exception e) {
 return e;
 return null;
 }.execute(null, null, null);

 * A modal AlertDialog for displaying a message on the UI thread
 * when theres an exception or message to report.
 * @param title Title for the AlertDialog box.
 * @param message The message displayed for the AlertDialog box.
public void DialogNotify(final String title,final String message)
 final AlertDialog.Builder dlg;
 dlg = new AlertDialog.Builder(this);

 runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
 public void run() {
 AlertDialog dlgAlert = dlg.create();
 (CharSequence) "OK",
 new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() {
 public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {

So the first function will register you device and the next one will create a notification with a message in your device. Next you create the connection with this piece of code:

<pre>MyHandler.mainActivity = this;
NotificationsManager.handleNotifications(this, SENDER_ID, MyHandler.class);
gcm = GoogleCloudMessaging.getInstance(this);
hub = new NotificationHub(HubName, HubListenConnectionString, this);

Notice how you pass your activity instance you the myhandler class. This is important.

And that’s it :D. Simple yet alot of work. Luckily Microsoft has made a good job documenting these steps. If in trouble don’t hesitate to look up on some documentation.

SignalR Hub

Implementing SignalR on the .NET side is rather easy BUT there is so much automation that it simply feel weird :). Everything seems to work if you just follow the instuctions but as I noticed one you poke around custom authentication and authorization you can really mess thing up. For example I wanted to add to my SignalR hun web project EDM mapping to a database or a custom authentication, well I made the mistake of choosing to use Entity Framework version 6.0 which uses a different version of Newtonsoft.json library which caused all sorts of problems. Another issue which I ran into was that I create a connection identification by client ID to be able to notify the client devices and services of changes within my system. At one point I did a simple mistake of forgeting to pass on the identification information which lead to weird errors on the client side browser such as IE and Chrome. The errors had nothing to do with the fact that the connection failed on the server side because the user ID was missing. The browsers expressed errors related to CORS which made no sense since I configured CORS support. So just be careful.Setting up a

Azure hosted SignalR hub

Start by looking at this source:

To host my SignalR hub in Azure I simply created an empty web application and followed the instructions in the link above. Sample code:

Also include the following SignalR nuget package:

Microsoft ASP .NET SignalR (to be able to host)

Microsoft ASP .NET Cross-Origin Support

Windows Azure Storage

Lets look at bit more closely at the ChartHub:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.AspNet.SignalR;
using SignalRGateway.AzureTableStorage;
using System.Configuration;

using Microsoft.WindowsAzure;
using Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage;
using Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Table;
using MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.Globals;

namespace SignalRGateway
 public class ChatHub : Hub

 public void Send(string name, string message)
 // Call the broadcastMessage method to update clients.
 var queryResult = this.SendMessageTo(name, message);
 foreach (var entity in queryResult)
 Clients.Client(entity.RowKey).broadcastMessage(name, message);

 public void IsDataUpdateRequiredForWeb(string name, bool isRequired, string message)
 var queryResult = this.SendMessageTo(name, message);
 foreach (var entity in queryResult)
 Clients.Client(entity.RowKey).isDataUpdateRequiredForWeb(name, isRequired, message);
 Clients.All.isDataUpdateRequiredForWeb(name, isRequired, message);

 public void IsDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient(string name, bool isRequired, string message)
 var queryResult = this.SendMessageTo(name, message);
 foreach (var entity in queryResult)
 Clients.Client(entity.RowKey).isDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient(name, isRequired, message);

 private List<ConnectionEntity> SendMessageTo(String who, String message)
 //var name = Context.User.Identity.Name;
 var name = this.GetConnectionUser();

 if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(name))
 var table = GetConnectionTable();

 // Notice that the partition keys are stored in azure storage as lower case
 var query = new TableQuery<ConnectionEntity>()

 var queryResult = table.ExecuteQuery(query).ToList();
 if (queryResult.Count == 0)
 Clients.Caller.showErrorMessage("The user is no longer connected.");
 // Load only once the host application connections to display the data there
 if(queryResult.Count(o=>o.PartitionKey.Equals(Constants.SignalR_HostApplicationUserName.ToLowerInvariant())) <= 0)
 queryResult.AddRange(this.SendMessageTo(Constants.SignalR_HostApplicationUserName, message));

 return queryResult;

 return new List<ConnectionEntity>();

 // This assumes that "normmaly" all others clients than the host SignalR web application (this app) will use header named as username for user identification. The SignalR web app will user querystring.
 private String GetConnectionUser()
 var name = Context.Headers[Constants.SignalR_HeaderID_Username];

 if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(name))
 name = Context.QueryString[Constants.SignalR_HeaderID_Username];
 if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(name))
 return null;

 // Notice that the partition keys are stored in azure storage as lower case
 return name.ToLowerInvariant();

 public override Task OnConnected()
 //var name = Context.User.Identity.Name;
 var name = this.GetConnectionUser();

 var table = GetConnectionTable();
 var created = table.CreateIfNotExists();

 var entity = new ConnectionEntity(
 var insertOperation = TableOperation.InsertOrReplace(entity);

 return base.OnConnected();

 public override Task OnDisconnected(bool stopCalled)
 //var name = Context.User.Identity.Name;
 var name = this.GetConnectionUser();

 if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(name))
 var table = GetConnectionTable();

 var deleteOperation = TableOperation.Delete(
 new ConnectionEntity(name, Context.ConnectionId) { ETag = "*" });

 return base.OnDisconnected(stopCalled);

 private CloudTable GetConnectionTable()

 var storageAccount =
 var tableClient = storageAccount.CreateCloudTableClient();
 var table = tableClient.GetTableReference("connection");

 return table;

In my code example connections are stored and managed in Azure Table Storage(check the link below how to create one):

When you connect to the hub you will enter the OnConnected() function. Here my implementation seeks for the username header value or QueryString username value(this is to just go around a problem in JavaScript client which I did not want to spend to much time on). After this we connect to the Azure Table Storage and add a new connection to the table.

When disconnecting the reverse is done to the Azure Storage Table.

The GetConnectionTable() function will open a connection to the storage table(check from azure management web console for your connection data).

The SignlarR has threee function which will send information to listening clients based on connection IDs:

  • Send
  • IsDataUpdateRequiredForWeb
  • IsDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient

The SendMessageTo() function is used to get all of the connection for a user name which needs to be notified of updates.

The code is pretty simple an easy. Microsoft has done a great job documenting this:

Last thing which I recommend to do is to configure CORS support:

// Branch the pipeline here for requests that start with "/signalr"
 app.Map("/signalr", map =>
 // Setup the CORS middleware to run before SignalR.
 // By default this will allow all origins. You can
 // configure the set of origins and/or http verbs by
 // providing a cors options with a different policy.
 var hubConfiguration = new HubConfiguration
 // You can enable JSONP by uncommenting line below.
 // JSONP requests are insecure but some older browsers (and some
 // versions of IE) require JSONP to work cross domain
 // EnableJSONP = true
 // Run the SignalR pipeline. We're not using MapSignalR
 // since this branch already runs under the "/signalr"
 // path.

Simply copy&paste the code above to get it to work but notice that it will allow requests from all possible connections.

Connecting and listening to activities with the following clients:

You will need to import the following libraries in Visual Studio to get you clients to work on SignalR:

Microsoft ASP .NET SignalR .NET Client

Microsoft ASP .NET SignalR JavaScript Client

Connecting with the .NET Client

The .NET Client code is pretty easy to understand:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using Microsoft.AspNet.SignalR.Client;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.ServiceBus;
using MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.Globals;

namespace MyFitnessTrackerLibrary.SignalRLogic
 public class HubGateway

 private String hubLocation = MyFitAppSettings.SignalRHubHostLocation;
 private static HubGateway _hubGateway = null;
 private String hubProxyName = MyFitAppSettings.SignalRHubProxy;
 private IHubProxy hubProxy = null;
 private HubConnection hubConnection = null;
 private String sourceID = "NO ID";

 public IHubProxy HubProxyPoint
 get { return this.hubProxy; }

 public String SourceID
 return this.sourceID;


 this.sourceID = value;

 public HubGateway()
 hubConnection = new HubConnection(this.hubLocation);
 hubProxy = hubConnection.CreateHubProxy(hubProxyName);


 public async Task SendNormalMessage(String name, String message)
 await this.Start(name);
 await this.HubProxyPoint.Invoke("Send", name, message + " #Source ID: " + this.sourceID);

 public async Task IsDataUpdateRequiredForWeb(String name, bool isRequired, String message)
 await this.Start(name);
 await this.HubProxyPoint.Invoke("IsDataUpdateRequiredForWeb", name, isRequired, message + " #Source ID: " + this.sourceID);
 await NotificationGateway.GetInstance().SendMessage("New data was added. Your UI is updated/updating.");

 public async Task IsDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient(String name, bool isRequired, String message)
 await this.Start(name);
 await this.HubProxyPoint.Invoke("IsDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient", name, isRequired, message + " #Source ID: " + this.sourceID);
 await NotificationGateway.GetInstance().SendMessage("New data was added. Your UI is updated/updating.");

 public static HubGateway GetInstance()
 if( _hubGateway == null)
 _hubGateway = new HubGateway();

 return _hubGateway;

 public async Task Start(String userName)
 if (hubConnection.State == ConnectionState.Disconnected)
 this.hubConnection.Headers.Add(new KeyValuePair<string, string>(Constants.SignalR_HeaderID_Username, userName));

 await hubConnection.Start();

 public void Stop()

The important part in this code in when you call the Invoke() function to invoke in the SignalR hub the needed function and notify registered clients of updates.

The second important part is the Start() function. We add the username data in the connection, this way the hub knows where to send the messages/updates requests. Yes I know there is a bug in the code above, only one user will receive messages from this piece of code. I haven’t got around to fix this in my original project but it’s a simple matter.

Connecting with the JavaScript client

var connection = $.hubConnection(Constants.SignalRGatewayLocation);
 connection.qs = { "username": CookieHelper.UserName };
 var contosoChatHubProxy = connection.createHubProxy(Constants.SignalRHubProxyName);

 contosoChatHubProxy.on(Constants.SignalRHubMethod_IsDataUpdateRequiredForWeb, function (name, isRequired, message) {
 // Html encode display name and message.
 var encodedName = $('<div />').text(name).html();
 //var encodedMsg = $('<div />').text("isDataUpdateRequiredForWeb is Update Required: " + isRequired + " Message: " + message).html();
 var encodedMsg = $('<div />').text("Updating UI. New data from the mobile app.").html();
 // Add the message to the page.
 $('#notifications').append('<ul><li><strong>' + encodedName
 + '</strong>:&nbsp;&nbsp;' + encodedMsg + '</li></ul>');

 .done(function () {
 console.log('Now connected, connection ID=' +
 .fail(function () {
 console.log('Could not connect');

The code above is rather simple. You create a connection, define the hub name, register to a function on the SignalR hub and start the connection.
The only “weird” part is that the username is passed in the QueryString and not in the header. This was due to a problem which I could not fix and had to go around. There might be a better solution out there.

Connecting with the Android client

Now here comes the hard part. Getting SignalR to work on android was a pain in the but :). Lots of weird problems and lack or proper documentation.

To start with you will need this library downloaded and compiled in Android Studio(or some other Java development tool you are using).

You also might need the following library:

Then a good place to go next would be:

BUT the example above did not work for me as it was stated in the example. Here what I had to do:

Add to your Android project these libraries:




The following libraries can be added from Android Studio UI: File -> Project Structure. Then add a new library from the plus icon and in the new popup select the “import .JAR or .AAR Package”.

Your gradle file should look something like this:

dependencies {
 compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
 compile ''
 compile ''
 compile ''
 compile files('libs/signalr-client-sdk.jar')
compile files('libs/notifications-1.0.1.jar')
compile files('libs/notification-hubs-0.4.jar')
 compile files('libs/Java-WebSocket-1.3.0.jar')
 compile project(':signalr-client-sdk-android-release')

The next step is to start to create a background service in Android that will be able to communicate with your desired activity.

We Start this by defining a interface which is implemented in the activity:

package com.example.adriansimionescu.myfitnessandroidapp;

public interface ServiceCallbacks {
    void updateUI();
<pre>// To implement it in your activity:</pre>
<pre>public class MainActivity extends ActionBarActivity implements ServiceCallbacks {

Next we create the background service:

package com.example.adriansimionescu.myfitnessandroidapp;

import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Binder;
import android.os.IBinder;
import android.util.Log;
import android.widget.Toast;

import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.SignalRFuture;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.hubs.HubConnection;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.hubs.HubProxy;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.hubs.SubscriptionHandler1;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.hubs.SubscriptionHandler2;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.hubs.SubscriptionHandler3;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.transport.ClientTransport;
import microsoft.aspnet.signalr.client.transport.ServerSentEventsTransport;

public class SignalRService extends Service {

    // Binder given to clients
    private final IBinder binder = new LocalBinder();
    // Registered callbacks
    private ServiceCallbacks serviceCallbacks;

    // Class used for the client Binder.
    public class LocalBinder extends Binder {
        SignalRService getService() {
            // Return this instance of MyService so clients can call public methods
            return SignalRService.this;

    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return binder;

    public void onCreate() {

    public void setCallbacks(ServiceCallbacks callbacks) {
        this.serviceCallbacks = callbacks;

    public void onStart(Intent intent, int startId) {
        super.onStart(intent, startId);
        Toast.makeText(this, "Service Start", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

        String server = Constants.SignalRGateway;
        HubConnection connection = new HubConnection(server);
        connection.getHeaders().put("username", UserDataContainer.LoginData.userName);
        HubProxy proxy = connection.createHubProxy(Constants.SignalRHubName);

        //SignalRFuture<Void> awaitConnection = connection.start();

// This was added to get around a websocket problem with Android devices to the SignalR hub hosted in Azure
        ClientTransport transport = new ServerSentEventsTransport(connection.getLogger());

        SignalRFuture<Void> awaitConnection = connection.start(transport);
        try {
            proxy.subscribe(this );
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            // TODO Auto-generated catch block
        } catch (ExecutionException e) {
            // TODO Auto-generated catch block


    public void Send( String name, String message )
        final String fmessage = message;
        final String fname = name;


    public void IsDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient( String name, boolean isRequired, String message ) {
        final String fmessage = message;
        final String fname = name;
        final boolean fisrequired = isRequired;
        if (serviceCallbacks != null) {

    public void onDestroy() {


There are a few important function.

onBind() => Use this to bind the actual instance of the service from your activity
setCallbacks() => use this to create a connection to the activity class interface so that we can call a desired method in the activity when a singalr message is received.

To bind to the SignalR function and message you need to define methods that use the same names as in the hub.
IsDataUpdateRequiredForMobileClient() and Send()

After the connection in made you need to call the subscribe method in the proxy class and pass the service class as a parameter. This will allow the binding between the defined methods above with the one in the SignalR hub.

The last part of the puzzle is that we call the interface function updateUI() which will trigger the same function in the activity to trigger and allow you to perform something in the activity.

Then all you have to do is to create the service instance in the activity, bind it and start it:

private SignalRService signalRService;</pre>
protected void onStart() {
    // Bind to LocalService

        Intent intent = new Intent(this, SignalRService.class);
        bindService(intent, serviceConnection, Context.BIND_AUTO_CREATE);
    // Do this to avoid starting multiple service, only one is needed
    if(this.signalRService == null) {

protected void onStop() {

    // Unbind from service
    if (bound) {
        this.signalRService.setCallbacks(null); // unregister
        bound = false;

/** Callbacks for service binding, passed to bindService() */
private ServiceConnection serviceConnection = new ServiceConnection() {

    public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName className,
                                   IBinder service) {
        // cast the IBinder and get MyService instance
        SignalRService.LocalBinder binder = (SignalRService.LocalBinder) service;
        signalRService = binder.getService();
        bound = true;
        signalRService.setCallbacks(MainActivity.this); // register

    public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName arg0) {
        bound = false;

/* Defined by ServiceCallbacks interface */
public void updateUI() {
// update your UI here

In the OnStart() and OnStop() functions we bind and start the service.

In the serviceConnection class instance we do the actual binding and notice how the code maps the activity to the service to be able to call the updateUI() function below.


The End

Huh, a long post but I hope you got the idea how to use notification hub, azure table storage and singnalr to communicate between different service and devices in different manner. SignalR is pretty cool what you can do with it. Especially with games and backend stuff. Cool 🙂

IIS Express and Android Studio connection issues

If you are getting a following like error when you are trying to connect to a Microsoft Web Service or whatever server point that is under IIS Express you might encounter the following error:

failed to connect to / (port “Your port number here”): connect failed: ECONNREFUSED (Connection refused)

The error above is due to a loopback problem. What you need to do is do some configurations.

  1. Find your applicationhost.config file under your documents(usually): C:\Users\”Your account name here”\Documents\IISExpress\config
  2. Then find your web service binding information see the example below(the sample in the green color, the red color binding is what is by default configured).
  3. Add the IP address and the port to which you want to connect at from android studio. The IP address has to be your development machines IP address.
  4. Also you need to add new rules to your windows firewall that allows your ports through which you wish the connection to be done.
  5. You may need to run Visual Studio in Administrator mode


<site name=”MyFitnessTrackerWebAPI(1)” id=”17″>
<application path=”/” applicationPool=”Clr4IntegratedAppPool”>
<virtualDirectory path=”/” physicalPath=”C:\Users\Adrian Simionescu\Dropbox\MyFitnessTracker\MyFitnessTrackerWebAPI\MyFitnessTrackerWebAPI” />
<binding protocol=”http” bindingInformation=”*:52797:localhost” />
<binding protocol=”http” bindingInformation=”*:80:″ />
<binding protocol=”http” bindingInformation=”*:52797:″ />


After this when you start up your webservice you should be able to access your service by address or host name. Also your IIS Express hosting information should look something in the this direction(based on the configuration above):

IIS express configurations

Android Studio Gradle problems


If you get these kinds of errors:

Error occurred during initialization of VM
Could not reserve enough space for object heap
Error: Could not create the Java Virtual Machine.
Error: A fatal exception has occurred. Program will exit.

Then the solution for me was this:

Control Panel
Environment Variables
System Variables
Variable name: _JAVA_OPTIONS
Variable value: -Xmx512M

The above is thx to this post: Works for Windows 8.1 + Android Studio 1.0.2