Ethical Hacking: Terminology – Part 1

I’ve started a new course on ethical hacking to get a better understanding of the internet, software security, personal security etc.

I’ll post a series of posts where I will write down my notes on what I’ve learned.

I’ll start today with some basic terminology:

Term Description
White Hat Hacker People that do hacking to help others, legal and ethical
Black Hat Hacker Unethical and unlegal activities
Grey Hat Hacker Between White and Black hat
Footprinting Information gathering on your target, on your task: like figuring out network related information, or software related details, or getting information from real world things or people. General information gathering in regard to your chosen target
DoS (Just you) Denial Of Service – On person performs a certain amount of request, more than the server can handle, to make the server crash. Servers can handle only a certain amount of requests and so the requests that does not fit into the request pool limit will be dropped out. If the service attack comes from one location/machine this is should not be possible.
DDoS (multiple people) Domain Denial Of Service – When you multiple computers/machines doing the service attack it will be harder for the software to know who to kick out.

 

The attack is not hard to do but the preparation is hard. You need to have multiple machines and to do this usually you have to infect other computers to create a bot farm of machines.

RAT Remote Administration Tools – For DDoS attacks needed a software that can be distributed upon other computers. This gives you control of a computer and allows you to hide your identity. The operations are not visible to a normal user. You can even hide them so that they do not show in normal operating system diagnostic tools.
FUD ( Anti-virus can not detect) Fully Undetectable – Also needed for DDoS attacks. Not labeled as malicious by anti-virus programs
Fishing Applying a bait and someone acts on it. Example: You get an email from someone and you click on it. Either it uploads something malicious or you do something that compromises your data, security.

 

Usually these are done so that the links look authentic but once you click on them you are redirected to some other server, which is not the one you would expect.

 

An easy way to spot these kind of addresses is to look at the address. If it is not from an HTTPS address then you are probably dealing with a false address. HTTPS addresses are much harder to fake.

SQL Injections Passing SQL Queries to HTTP requests. Allowing SQL command to run on a server to get or alter data that is not others wise intended to see or use.
VPN Virtual Private Network – Routing and encrypting traffic data between you and the VPN server/provider. A way of anonymizing yourself.

 

There is no real easy way to identify you unless the VPN Provider gives up your identity.

Proxy A less reliable way of staying anonymous. You could route your traffic between many proxies but the more proxies you have the harder it is to add new proxies to your traffic. This is mostly because of internet speed limitations, not enough available bandwidth. It will slow down you actions.

 

You can use free proxies and you can use paid proxies but paid ones leave a trace of whom you are.

Tor Open Source – Another way to hide your identity. Faster than proxies but slower than VPNs. Routes traffic through different routes, routers, places to hide your trace.

 

There is a very high chance of staying hidden (99.99%), there are tools, ways to find but highly unlikely.

VPS Virtual Private Server – a “security layer”, example: a virtual machine inside an actual machine that serves as a database server for you web server. This is done so that the database is not accessible from the outside directly.

 

In this way you can be specific who and from where can access that virtual machine.

Key Loggers Tools that are used to extract information from a machine, these needs to be deployed to a machine where the tool gathers key strokes and send that information to a location for analysis.

 

Key Loggers can extract existing information as well, you can modify the settings of a key logger (what, where, how to act), you can take screenshots, to use a camera on a device, microphone etc.

Terminal An interface to control your operating system. GUI tools are not as nearly as powerful as terminal tools.

 

Most hacking tools are designed for the terminal. Once you know how to do it in the terminal, you’ll know how to do it in the GUI.

Firewall A firewall is configured through iptable commands.

 

Linux firewall is open source and it has a HUDE amount of options. On Windows, by default you have some of these options but you will need to buy some package or application to get more options.

Root Kit rootkit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that would not otherwise be allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.
Reverse-shells There are thousands of Reverse-shells. You have a program that infects another device that program opens up a reverse connection from that device back to you. Therefore, you can keep up controlling an external device.

 

Usually you need to break through a router first and reconfigure it to give you more access to a network and machines.

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